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How can we explain these phenomena? Recall that proteins consist of up to a hundred or more amino acids. Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health. Read more about what we do. A lipid is a member of a class of water-insoluble compounds that includes oils, fats, and waxes. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/essam.html. These sugars are structural isomers of one another, with the difference being that glucose contains an aldehyde functional group whereas fructose contains a ketone functional group. The steps in protein synthesis are described. Each particular organism contains many protein molecules that are specific to that organism. Describe the DNA triplet codes for amino acids. One of the best known polysaccharides is starch, the main form of energy storage in plants. User:NEUROtiker/Wikimedia Commons. Cellulose is largely indigestible and comprises the cell walls of plants. Even with only four different bases, the number of possible nucleotide sequences in a DNA chain is virtually limitless. Humans have to use other techniques in order to synthesize the same proteins in a lab. This abnormality, known as sickle cell, is genetic in nature. Each nucleotide consists of a base, a pentose (either ribose or deoxyribose) and phosphate groups (see Figure below ). Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose and serves as energy storage in animals. No, this is not a substitute for eating a healthy diet and exercising. Watch the animation at the site below and take the quiz: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_enzymes_work.html. Since no reaction occurs with the inhibitor, the enzyme is prevented from catalyzing the reaction. Some metal ions which function as cofactors for various enzymes include zinc, magnesium, potassium, and iron. It contains vitamins and minerals necessary for healthy development. The inhibitor binds competitively at the active site and blocks the substrate from binding. The three-dimensional structure of a protein is very critical to its function. The term carbohydrate comes from the fact that the majority contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1, making for an empirical formula of CH 2 O. The two most common types of protein secondary structure are the alpha helix and the beta sheet. The basic components of nucleic acids are nucleotides. The interaction of the various side chains in the amino acid, specifically the hydrogen bonding, leads to the adoption of a particular secondary structure. Today, various vegetable oils are used in place of whale oils. Not just the casual joggers, but those really serious ones who actually enjoy running all 26.2 miles of a marathon. Cellular processes consist of many chemical reactions that must occur quickly in order for the cell to function properly.

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